The alcohol production process consists of the following steps:
- The mixed juice extracted from the three mills is sent to a tank where does the division of the broth to the process of sugar and alcohol.
- The broth sent to the process of alcohol after leaving the buffer tank, passes through a sifting process in static sieves to remove the suspended solids (bagacilho). Then the juice is pumped to a heat exchanger - regenerative plate heat (2) AX 30, where it is heated to 30 ° C to 65 ° C in counterflow with the clarified juice / pre - evaporated, ie, while the broth mixture is heated, clarified juice / pre-evaporated is cooled proportionately.
- The broth mixture heated to 65 ° C and goes to the dosing process, where the juice goes through a process of correction of pH, increasing it from 5.5 to 6.8.
- After pH correction, the stock is now called mixed broth dosed, which is sent to eight horizontal heaters, where it is heated to 65 ° C to 105 º C. The broth at 105 ° C undergoes a flasheamento the ball flash to remove the air inside and goes to the decanters (2 decanters with capacity of 850m3 each).
- In the decanter, the juice undergoes the process of clarification, where separation occurs, first of clarified juice and the other side of the mud.
- The sludge goes to a buffer tank sludge and then is sent to the rotary vacuum filters, where it gives the broth filtrate and the cake.
- The broth filtrate is recycled in the process, more specifically in strength, recovering the sugar present in the sludge, the cake is sent to the plantation to serve as fertilizer.
- Must prepared is sent to the fermentation vats. There are 28 vats of 250 m3 each. In vats, the wine is added on the foot tub ready.
Preparation of foot-tubs:
- The vats of fermented wine (wine after fermentation + yeast) undergoes a spin in order to reuse the yeast used in fermentation.
- Wine delevedurado is sent to distillation.
- The yeast cream is sent to a treatment with the addition of cold water at a ratio of two parts water by yeast, the addition of H2SO2 to pH = 2.2 and stirring for 3 hours.
- This treatment is done with tanks of 100 m3 each. There are 4 tanks for this treatment of yeast. Then the foot tub is sent to the fermentation vat.
- After this, starts to feed on the wine vat to the filling. There must be a filling time of approximately 3 h. After the vat is full, there is a delay of 4 to 5 hours for fermentation to take place, or so the sugar turns into alcohol and CO2.
- After this fermentation, the vat is ready to suffer centrifugation of wine and start a new cycle.
- Wine delevedurado is sent boxes of food on the top floor of the distillery. Hence, by gravity feed the distillation columns.
- The wine box passes through the condenser, which condenses the alcohol leaves the top of column B. It is heated to 60 ° C. Next, pass the heat exchangers, where heat exchange with the stillage, the wine is heated to 92 C and vinasse cooled to 85 º C K.
- The wine warmed to 92 C feeds the column A1, which will undergo a concentration of manufacturing beverage, while inside the column, there will be an increase in alcohol-rich vapors and a drop of liquid condensate low in alcohol. This liquid low in alcohol (stillage) to reach the bottom of column A, is removed.
- Of the alcohol-rich vapors, part feeds the D column purification and partly feeds the column B in the form of phlegm, whose concentration is 50% alcohol by volume and 50% in water + waste consisting of higher alcohols, aldehydes, esters, etc..
- The mists fall from the top of column D are condensed in two condensers (R and R1), using water as coolant. Steam condensate in R and R1, part flows back into column D, and part is removed from second to alcohol as tanking.
- The phlegm that was fed in column B1 undergo a process of purification and concentration, the top of column B leave the vapors of alcohol 94 º GL hydrated. At the bottom of a watery fluid exits B1-free alcohol that is called flegmass. This flegmass returns for the preparation of yeast.
- The alcohol vapors leaving the column B are condensed in condenser E, E1 and E2, and E in the coolant is the wine that will feed the column. Capacitors in E1 and E2 the refrigerant is water.
- All that alcohol vapor condensate returned as reflux to column B and a little below the entrance of reflux is made of hydrated alcohol withdrawal. The alcohol goes into a tank meter and then is pumped to storage tanks.
- In column B1 are taken to withdraw from high oil (esters, acetates) and base oils (fusel oil). These withdrawals are a resfriadeira TQO2 cooled and then sent to the decanter of fusel oil. Settling out of this two products: oil high, which is mixed with alcohol, second and fusel oil, which is removed and stored.
Production of ethanol
The production of anhydrous ethanol consists of the following steps:
- The hydrated alcohol, withdrawn from column B to produce anhydrous alcohol, which passes through the valve 2 is opened and valve 1 which is closed.
- After passing through valve 2, goes to a heated alcohol QO3 and then feeds the column C. This column is the column dehydrating.
- This column receives power from hydrous ethanol and cyclohexane. Because the addition of cyclohexane formed a mixture of cyclohexane, water and ethanol. This azeotropic mixture is removed from the top of the column C.
- The vapors leaving the column C (azeotropic mixture) are sent to two capacitors called H and H1, which are cooled with water. All the condensate is mixed with pure cyclohexane (replacement) from the box W1.
- Then get the condensate from the condenser I, who works on the column P. All this condensate is sent to a decanter of cyclohexane, which is on top of the column C.
- In settling, separation occurs in two layers, with the top, rich in cyclohexane, returns to the C column as reflux.
- The lower layer rich in water and low in cyclohexane, is sent to the column recovery of cyclohexane P. This column provides water as a product of substance and the vapors leaving the top rich in cyclohexane which will be condensed in the condenser I.
- That I condenser, a section follows the line 17 entering the column C and the other part follows the line 22 and enter the P column as reflux.
- Anhydrous alcohol leaving the bottom of column C is sent to resfriadeira J, then, is sent to the tank gauge TQO2. After that is sent to storage tanks.
- Anhydrous alcohol - d = 0.79 kg / l at 20 ° C, ie 100 liters of anhydrous alcohol, weighing 79 kg to 20 º C